||Rusty-spotted cat Prionailurus rubiginosus is the smallest wild cat, believed to be distributed only in India and Sri Lanka. Recently it was discovered from wider areas than previously thought but never recorded from Nepal. During a camera trap survey primarily targeted for tigers Panthera tigris, rusty-spotted cat was photographed multiple times on a single camera trap station in Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve in January and February 2016. The camera trap location is in dry-deciduous Sal Shoresa robusta forest in core area of the reserve at a distance of approximately 5 km from settlements. This is the first photographic evidence of rusty-spotted cat captured in camera traps in Nepal. Similarly, a photograph of a cat species taken by a park visitor in 2012 from Bardiya National Park was confirmed as rusty-spotted cat. With this record, Nepal has 12 felid species: tiger, common leopard Panthera pardus, snow leopard Panthera uncia, clouded leopard Neofelis nebulosa, Eurasian Lynx Lynx lynx, Asiatic golden cat Catopuma temminckii, fishing cat Prionailurus viverrinus, jungle cat Felis chaus, leopard cat Prionailurus bengalensis, marbled cat Pardofelis marmorata, Pallas's cat Otocolobus manul and rusty-spotted cat.