review the state-of-the-art in patent citation analysis, particularly characteristics of patent citations
to scientific literature (scientific non-patent references,SNPRs). Second, to present a novel
mapping approach to identify technology-relevant research based on the papers cited
by and referring to the SNPRs.
In the review
part we discuss the context of SNPRs such as the time lags between scientific
achievements and inventions. Also patent-to-patent citation is addressed
particularly because this type of patent citation analysis is a major element
in the assessment of the economic value of patents. We also review the research
on the role of universities and researchers in technological development, with
important issues such as universities as sources of technological knowledge and
inventor-author relations. We conclude the review part of this paper with an
overview of recent research on mapping and network analysis of the science and
technology interface and of technological progress in interaction with science.
In the second part we apply new techniques for the direct visualization of the cited
and citing relations of SNPRs, the mapping of the landscape around SNPRs by bibliographic
coupling and co-citation analysis, and the mapping of the conceptual
environment of SNPRs by keyword co-occurrence analysis.
several properties of SNPRs. Only a small minority of publications covered by the Web of Science or
Scopus are cited by patents, about 3%–4%. However, for publications based on
university-industry collaboration the number of SNPRs is considerably higher,
around 15%. The proposed mapping methodology based on a “second order SNPR approach”
enables a better assessment of the technological relevance of research.
limitations: The main
limitation is that a more advanced merging of patent and publication data, in
particular unification of author and inventor names, in still a necessity.
implications: The proposed
mapping methodology enables the creation of a database of technology-relevant
papers (TRPs). In a bibliometric assessment the publications of research
groups, research programs or institutes can be matched with the TRPs and thus
the extent to which the work of groups, programs or institutes are relevant for
technological development can be measured.
The review part
examines a wide range of findings in the research of patent citation analysis. The
mapping approach to identify a broad range of technology relevant papers is
novel and offers new opportunities in research evaluation practices.