||In October 2000, the United Nations Security Council passed the resolution 1325 on gender mainstreaming. Several resolutions on this topic have followed and together these resolutions form the Women, Peace and Security agenda. This agenda encompasses all aspects of gender mainstreaming such as the protection of women’s rights in conflict and post-conflict, the prevention of sexual abuse against women and the enhancement of women in United Nations peacekeeping operations. This thesis particularly studies the latter issue, urging the Member States to deploy more women peacekeepers in peacekeeping missions. The larger deployment of women in missions is of high importance since the inclusion of women peacekeepers has advantages for conflict and post-conflict societies. Therefore, the United Nations advises the Member States to adopt a National Action Plan and aims to fully support national governments to implement gender mainstreaming in their policies and guidelines. This thesis hypothesises that there is a gap between the increasing policies established by the Dutch government in favour of gender mainstreaming and the reality of vast under-representation of Dutch women peacekeepers in peacekeeping operations. An analysis of the Dutch National Action Plans and Defence Action Plan demonstrates how the official Dutch governmental discourse fails to increase the participation of Dutch women in peacekeeping operations. The three main observations, resulting from this analysis, are the lack of internal focus within the national policies and the Dutch society on gender mainstreaming, the use of the word ‘women’ instead of ‘gender’ and the fact that the Dutch government treats the implementation of the policies as a final goal, while these policies are merely a sub-part of a larger effort. Therefore, it can be concluded that the official Dutch government discourse on the Security Council resolution 1325 shows the gap between the little change in Dutch women’s participation in peacekeeping operations and the adoption of policies in favour of gender mainstreaming.