||In this PhD-research, the main question addressed is whether or not conspiracy constructions are boosting hatred against the political system - and if conspiracy constructions could prompt
violent actions against politicians, institutions or symbols of the political system. Based on research into digital communities in which conspiracy constructions flourish, the research concludes that conspiracy constructions function as substitute ideologies and substitute religions in a post-political setting. Offering a clear master narrative of 'Us' and 'Them', and making a complex world eligible again, conspiracy constructions function as coded social
critiques informing those who feel alienated, neglected and betrayed by the political establishment.
However, as conspiracy constructions neglect real social and political opposites, cleavages and antagonisms that divide each society and construct a fictitious homogeneous 'People', the
political mobilizing potential of conspiracy constructions is almost absent. Notwithstanding the violent and hateful discourse on social media one should not exaggerate the risks in terms
of national security. The popularity of conspiracy constructions and the hateful discourse against the political system signals foremost powerlessness, despair and resentment that finds
an outlet on social media.