Insulin sensitivity : modulation by neuropeptides and hormones

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Insulin sensitivity : modulation by neuropeptides and hormones

Type: Doctoral Thesis
Title: Insulin sensitivity : modulation by neuropeptides and hormones
Author: Hoek, Anita van den
Publisher: Departement Endocrinology, Faculty of Medicine / Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC), Leiden University
Issue Date: 2006-04-26
Keywords: Obesity
Diabetes
Neuropeptides
Gut hormones
Insulin resistance
Type II Diabetes
Gut-brain axis
NPY
POMC
PYY
Leptin
Abstract: Nowadays, obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally. It can lead to several chronic diseases, including insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes mellitus. Feeding behaviour is regulated in the hypothalamus of the brain by two opposing pathways: NPY/AgRP neurons vs. POMC/CART neurons. In addition, there are numerous peripheral signals, deriving from stomach, gut, pancreas and adipose tissue, that act on the hypothalamus and thereby contribute to the regulation of food intake. The aim of the studies we have performed, was to investigate the effects of some of these neuropeptides and peripheral signals that affect these neuropeptides, on insulin action. Our experiments showed, that NPY can cause insulin resistance, specifically in the liver. The POMC pathway can improve insulin-mediated glucose disposal and does not affect hepatic insulin sensitivity. Therefore, both pathways are not completely opposing each other’s effects, but seem to have a different tissue-specific effect. Experiments with gut hormones like PYY and ghrelin showed that these hormones affect insulin sensitivity as well. Also leptin, and specifically leptin signalling in the brain, was found to be important for insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, this work showed that neuropeptides/hormones that are involved in the regulation of food intake also affect insulin sensitivity.
Description: Promotores: L.M. Havekes, J.A. Romijn Copromotor: H. Pijl
With summary in Dutch
Faculty: LUMC
Citation: van den Hoek, A., 2006, Doctoral thesis, Leiden University
Sponsor: The printing of this thesis was financially supported by: TNO-Quality of Life, the Gaubius Laboratory Dutch Diabetes Research Foundation Van Leersumfonds KNAW Eli Lilly Nederland Novo Nordisk Farma B.V. Hope Farms / abdiets, W oerden
Handle: http://hdl.handle.net/1887/4372
 

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