||This thesis examined the possible function(s) of Harappan fortifications and evaluated the possibility of the fortifications being used as a water barrier against flooding, as military structures or if the fortifications had a more ideological function.
The military aspects of the fortifications will be the focus of this thesis and are evaluated according to primary and secondary features. The primary features are 1. The bastion, 2. The defended gate and 3. The V-sectioned moat while the secondary features are the parapet, postern, rampart, salient, tower and the thickness of the walls. Eight sites of the Indus valley have been examined: 1. Banawali, 2. Harappa, 3. Kalibangan, 4. Mohenjo-daro, 5. Dholavira, 6. Kuntasi, 7. Lothal and 8. Surkotada.
It has been concluded that flooding did not play an important role in erecting the fortifications. The fortifications all have primary and secondary military features in some degree (except Lothal) which points to a military function of the fortification. Moreover, the turbulent start of the Mature phase is connected with the construction of the fortifications and indicates the need for such structures. However, ideology plays a big part in Harappan society as well and therefore some of the fortifications have a monumental aspect. It is therefore suggested that the fortifications in general performed both a military and a symbolic function.