||In this thesis the cultural situation in the Netherlands during the middle Neolithic and the late Neolithic-A is described. The Vlaardingen culture (3400-2500 BC) and the Funnel beaker culture (TRB) co-existed during the middle Neolithic. Several aspects of both cultures are described. These aspects contribute to the characterization of both cultures. On the other hand, a comparison between these aspects allow similarities and differences between both cultures to be determined. Based on the pottery and the occupied environment, the Vlaardingen culture and the TRB seem clearly distinguishable from one another. The aim of this thesis is to determine in what way both cultures are distinct from each other, but even more important is to nuance this division. Several finds that are the result of contacts between the Vlaardingen culture and the TRB are discussed. Additionally, certain objects were present in both cultures and there is evidence for the existence of an exchange network which incorporated both cultures. It appeared the cultures remained “pure” for over 500 years. Still, sporadic contacts took place between the people of both cultures. These were however not so intensive that acculturation occurred. The second and shorter part of this thesis deals with the Single Grave culture (2900-2500 BC). When the TRB ceases to exist, the SGC succeeds it. The Vlaardingen culture endures in the west (3400-2500 BC). It is examined whether the Vlaardingen culture and the SGC were just as strictly divided over the landscape as the TRB from the Vlaardingen culture. Characteristics of the SGC have been briefly discussed and the distribution of the culture throughout the Netherlands has been described. It is swiftly apparent that the SGC maintained a less strict preference for environment than the TRB. The SGC seems to have spread into the wetlands of the west as well as the uplands in the west. However the Vlaardingen culture persists and the presence of the SGC within Vlaardingen settlements is remains limited. Finally, it turns out that the current chronology is not accurate enough to make clear statements on the distribution pattern of the SGC throughout the Netherlands.