A study of architect Cosman Citroen (1881-1935) and his works in Surabaya

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A study of architect Cosman Citroen (1881-1935) and his works in Surabaya

Type: Doctoral Thesis
Title: A study of architect Cosman Citroen (1881-1935) and his works in Surabaya
Author: Santoso, Joko Triwinarto
Publisher: Faculty of the Humanities, Leiden University
Issue Date: 2010-06-29
Keywords: Architectura et Amicitia
Colonial architecture
Cosman Citroen (1881-1935)
Dutch architecture
Early 20th century
Jewish history
Municipality of Surabaya
Netherlands Indies
Town planning
Abstract: This study presents an in-depth analysis of the works of the Dutch architect Cosman Citroen (1881-1935) in Surabaya. Citroen grew up in a Jewish-Dutch diamond worker family in Amsterdam. After graduating from the Quellinus School in 1902, he worked at the office of B.J. Ouëndag (1861-1932). He also was a teacher of geometry. From 1908 onwards he trained young members of Architectura et Amicitia. In 1915 Citroen arrived in Surabaya where he started as a Municipal architect. In 1930 he became an independent architect. From 1915-1935 he produced twenty works, including town planning projects, various types of buildings, interior designs, and bridges. His commissioners were - besides the Municipality - private persons, social and religious communities, trading companies and state institutions. His clients were Dutch, British, Chinese or indigenous. Citroen’s early ideas on architecture were strongly influenced by pre-modern Dutch and European architecture. However, he almost immediately incorporated tropical vernacular features in his buildings. His architectural works of the 1920s are hybrid combinations of modern European stylistic features and elements taken from the typical vernacular architecture of Java. His reputation was recognized not only in Surabaya and the Netherlands Indies, but also in the Netherlands themselves and in international forums.
Description: Promotor: C.A. van Eck, Co-promotor: J.G. Roding
With summary in Dutch
Faculty: Faculteit der Letteren
Citation: Santoso, J.T., Doctoral thesis, Leiden University
Sponsor: Ford Foundation
Handle: http://hdl.handle.net/1887/15736

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